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Value Added Tax

A general tax that applies, in principle, to all commercial activities involving the production and distribution of goods and the provision of services. However, if the annual turnover of this person is less than a certain limit (the threshold), which differs according to the Member State, the person does not have to charge VAT on their sales.
a consumption tax because it is borne ultimately by the final consumer. It is not a charge on businesses.
charged as a percentage of the price, which means that the actual tax burden is visible at each stage in the production and distribution chain.
collected fractionally, via a system of partial payments whereby taxable persons (i.e., VAT-registered businesses) deduct from the VAT they have collected the amount of tax they have paid to other taxable persons on purchases for their business activities. This mechanism ensures that the tax is neutral regardless of how many transactions are involved.
paid to the revenue authorities by the seller of the goods, who is the “taxable person”, but it is actually paid by the buyer to the seller as part of the price. It is thus an indirect tax.

The types of VAT are determined on the basis of treatment of capital goods of a firm. Input tax paid for capital goods is allowed or not is the fundamental question in the study of types of VAT.
Under consumption-type VAT, all capital goods purchased from other firms, in the year of purchase, are excluded from the tax base while depreciation is not deducted from the tax base in subsequent years. The base of the tax is consumption since investment is relieved from taxation under this type.

The income type VAT does not exclude capital goods purchased from other firms from the tax base in the year of purchase. This type, however, excludes depreciation from the tax base in subsequent years. The tax falls both on consumption and net investment. The tax base of this type is the net national income.

Under this type, capital goods purchased by a firm from other firms are not deductible from the tax base in the year of purchase. It also does not allow the deduction of depreciation from the tax base in subsequent years. Tax is levied both on consumption and gross investment. The tax base of this type is a gross domestic product